Protocol is a set of rules or an agreement that specifies a common language that computers on a network use for communication with other computers. It also specifies the conditions under which a particular message should be sent or responded and the particular method of doing it. They give the specification on how the computers talk with each other. There are various protocol suites available.
- Ethernet: This is used to transfer information on LAN. It specifies a number of wiring and signaling standards for the physical layer, two ways of network access (Media Access Control/Data Link Layer) and a common address format.
- Internet Protocol (IP): This protocol provides communicable global addresses of/to the computers. The computers identify each other by the IP addresses.
- Transport Control Protocol (TCP): This protocol guarantees reliable, proper delivery of data from the sender to the receiver. It breaks large messages, transports them reliably and reassembles them.
- File Transfer Protocol (FTP): This is used to connect two computers over the internet so that the user of one computer can transfer files and perform file commands on the other computer. It exchanges file over any network that supports TCP/IP protocol.
- Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP): This protocol is used to retrieve Web pages from a Web server.
- Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP): This protocol used for email transmissions.